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Many times, the rural people are reluctant to leave their agricultural or other work for examination of their eyes. In our endeavor to take eye care services to door step of population of the rural India, we are opening vision centres in small towns where rural masses can visit without wasting their whole day and thus losing whole day’s wages.
LEC is running its own Vision centre at Palia at Nepal Border. More importantly, we are having formal association with many private owned vision centres that meet our standards of eye care. We provide them training, upgrade their skill and hold camps in association with them when such camp is in their area.

EYE Diseases their symptoms and treatment

When people are not able to see the objects properly they are said to have defective vision. Defective vision can be of 3 types:-

  • Myopia- Not able to see distant objects clearly
  • Hypermetropia- Not able to see near objects clearly.
  • Presbiopia- Not able to see near objects due to ageing.
Refractive Error

In the young age, the light from near as well as distant objects focuses on central part of Retina. This gives clear image of both near and distant objects. That is why young people are able to read fine prints in books, pamphlets etc and also can read registration no. of vehicle far ahead of them and also train number and name on a passing train even if they are standing quite away from railway track.

In some adults and even in some children, there can be problem of focus on Retina. Especially in case of young children 1 or 2 children in each class are unable to see blackboard writing. Such children are said to haver near sighted or myopic.

As people age, a diseases called presbiopia sets in. In this, distant vision is normally good but problem of reading newspaper etc. in normal light becomes difficult. In some cases both distant & near vision may be affected.

Treatment: After correct assessment of Refractive error, spectacles are prescribed which nearly completely restore original vision. The contact lenses can also be used in place of spectacles. After Refraction error has been found and spectacles have been adopted by the patients, the eye checkup should be ensured at least once in a year to detect any changes in refraction error so that new spectacles can be advised if required.

Eye Flu or Conjunctivitis

What is it: This disease spreads through virus or bacteria. It is infectious disease and the things used by patients like handkerchief, towel, mobile phone etc. can infect others if they are used by them.

Symptoms:  There is pain in the eyes. Opening of eyes itself is painful. There is excretion of white viscous substance on the edges of eyes.

Treatment: The white substances coming out of eyes during conjunctivitis should be cleaned with warm water repeatedly. The Patient should follow medical drops suggested by the doctors. Generally this disease is cured in about 6 to 8 days and pain, redness and excretion of white substance also is over after this period.

Blepharitis or Swollen Eyelids

This is highly common disease and virtually every person is affected more than once in his life time. As per our experience, this also is the disease which initially leaves most of the patients dissatisfied with simple measures suggested to overcome it.

Symptoms:  Watery Eyes and pricking pain are the main symptoms. As a result, the person is not able to see the things properly and not able to concentrate on his day to day work.

Treatment: Surprisingly, the treatment for disease is very simple and costs virtually nothing. It is suggested by most eye surgeons to wash eyelids with warm water so that the dirt deposited on the inside of eyelids and which clogs the oil secretion glands is cleared. Subsequently the patient is advised to rub his hands to create heat in his palms which should be put on eyes for warming the eyelids and massaging them with warm palm.

It is mentioned here that patients should be careful while doing above activity so as not to hurt pupils of the eyes.

If these measures do not cure the aliment, doctor should be consulted for further advice for treatment.

Cataract

What is it?

The job of lens in the eye is similar to camera. It makes image of object on the Retina. In case of camera, focus on a particular surface is made by changing the distance of lens from that surface. In camera the shape of the lens generally cannot be changed. In eye, the lens ensures image formation on Retina by shrinking or expanding itself with the help of Ciliary body muscles. After around 45 years, things start looking hazy and lens starts getting white cloudy appearance on it affecting its transparency. This is called the state of Cataract.

Symptoms: Vision is affected adversely, the shine from light from oncoming vehicles causes difficulty in driving in night. The distant objects like moon start giving double image. If left untreated, it can cause complete blindness. At present the biggest single reason for blindness in the world is Cataract.

Treatment: Surgery is the only effective treatment of Cataract. In the Cataract surgery, the original lens of the eye is taken out and an artificial lens is implanted in its place. The implanted lens is expected to last ones life time.

The present common methods of Cataract surgery are SICS (small incision Cataract Surgery) and PHACO emulsification surgery . The cost packages of Cataract surgery are based on whether a person has selected SICS or PHACO surgery and the choice of lens in the selected category.

Glaucoma

What is it?

The eye has system of generating fluid for wetting of the cornea so that cornea does not become dry and over a period of time opaque. An opaque cornea means complete blindness.  The extra fluid however has to be drained out so that the optimum pressure only is available within the eye globe.  If the drainage system to take out this fluid is narrowed or choked due to some reason, the extra fluid gets accumulated inside the eye and causes build up of pressure in the eye. The pressure causes nerves in the eye to shrink and later on become completely dysfunctional. This state can cause complete blindness and is said to be blindness cause by Glaucoma. Glaucoma is the second biggest reason for causing blindness after Cataract.

Symptoms: As the pressure builds slowly, the initial symptoms are nonexistent. The only effect is that the vision starts getting adversely affected but slowly. This vision effect is taken as normal age related vision change. The patients who normally go to road side optometry shop for refraction are normally advised change in power of specs without suspecting the reason for frequent change in the power of specs. These optometry shops are also not equipped to check the pressure of the eye.  Such patients report to proper hospital only when vision is seriously affected and substantial damage to the nerve has already taken place.

Treatment: It may be noted that damage already done to the nerves cannot be reversed. The only job left for the hospital in such cases is to suggest medication or surgery which will bring down the pressure in the eye and thus save the vision left at that point. The treatment generally involves one of the two mentioned below:

Medication:

Drops which will help open up drainage system and relieve the pressure in the eye. Once started the treatment must continue till suggested otherwise by the doctor. In many cases it means lifelong.

Surgery for Glaucoma:

           When medicine drops start becoming ineffective after certain time, the only option left for the doctor to relieve the pressure in the eye is surgery. This surgery involves opening up of the clogged drainage system which sometimes requires inserting a very small tube in the clogged part of drainage system.  In many cases where patients are very old, surgery can be adopted as primary treatment for Glaucoma. The reason medication is preferred in relatively younger patients is that surgery itself becomes ineffective after some time ( say 10 years) & second surgery is not that effective.

Retinal Detachment:

What is it?  

The internal surface of eye globe on which light after passing through lens focuses to make image is called Retina. Retina is made up of two layers: one layer consisting of highly sensitive tissues and the other layer made up of blood vessels or cells. In normal eyes both these layers are attached to each other rigidly. When there is disruption in any part of Retina, the fluid enters between two layers and the layer gets separated. This is called Retinal Detachment. Complete Retinal Detachment if not corrected within certain period will cause total blindness.

Symptoms: Lighting in front of eyes seeing black spots in front of the eyes or seeing cobwebs in front of the eye are some of the symptoms of Retinal Detachment. These are initially symptoms and when complete Detachment takes place, there is total black out in front of Eye.

Treatment: Operation is the only treatment for Retinal Detachment. It is a difficult and time taking surgery. Some times after Retinal layers have been joined with the help of laser silicon oil or gas is filled

inside the eye which helps in keeping the two layers together and fully joining them over a period of time. The gas slowly leaves out itself but silicon oil has to be removed through another surgery in OT . The choice of filling silicon oil or gas depends on surgeon’s assessment of the damage of the Retina and best and most economical choice for optimum result.

Diabetic Retinopathy

What is it?

Diabetes affects every organ of the body. If diabetic control is good, the adverse effect on organs is slow. Eye is also affected in the similar manner. After about 10 years of diabetes, the Retina of the eye may start getting affected.

Symptoms:  The blood starts coming on Retina causing loss of vision. The loss of vision is quite fast and if kept untreated will cause blindness.

Treatment:   The best treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy is to control blood sugar.  The treatment of damage layer is done by laser injections & sometimes by surgery.

Squint

What is it?

When we see an object with both eyes open, there is coordination between two eyes and we see a clear image of the object. In this case, both eyes complement each other. Both eyes are turned towards the side of object and look parallel with respect to object. When this coordination gets disturbed due to any reason the parallelity of eyes towards an object is lost. This situation is called Squint.

Symptoms: This can give impression to a person talking to another person having squint that squinted person is talking to other person but looking somewhere else. When a person has squint, his eye sight may or may not be affected as far as individual power of eyes is concerned but it looks odd to other people looking at the person affected by squint. This has some social fall out also as many squinted people find it difficult to get married.

Treatment: Sometimes the squint is the result of very high power of the eyes and can be corrected by wearing proper specs. However, in most of the squint cases, surgery has to be conducted.  Surgery can totally eliminate the squint and after surgery, it is difficult to judge whether the person ever had squint.

Retinopathy of Prematurity

What is it?

When premature babies are born (before seven months), the Retina of the eye of the baby sometimes is not fully developed. In normal babies, the Retina is fully developed at the time of birth. In premature babies also most of the babies have a developed Retina. But in few cases improper development of Retina causes Retinal layer to shrink and detach some time after birth. In such cases, the vision cannot be regained. The prevention is the only treatment.

Treatment: Instead of trying to judge whether baby has Retinopathy of Prematurity or not, the best way out is to get the baby examined by an eye surgeon immediately after birth.  If the eye surgeon finds the baby is suffering from Retinopathy of Prematurity, he may suggest laser or injection to save the eye.

Cosmetic Eye Surgeries:

  • Best performed by Eye Surgeon & not by Plastic Surgeon.
  • Aging charges, drooping of eyelids, under eye puffiness ( Bags) & other lid abnormalities can be corrected by cosmetic surgery by an Eye Surgeon.